Linux is an operating system that acts as an intermediary between the user, programs and hardware. It is the basis for many VPSs, servers, smartphones and computers around the world. A distribution is a software bundle that contains the operating system itself, a set of programs and drivers, a graphical shell, and sometimes even games. Ubuntu is one of the Linux distributions aimed at general users.
- Provided absolutely free of charge, users can download, install and use the software without restriction.
- The source code is open source, allowing you to modify it as you see fit.
- The clear and friendly interface makes the OS accessible to a wide range of users.
- Lots of apps and programs for convenience and efficiency.
- The operating system is renowned for its improved security, providing protection against viruses and other malicious threats.
- Unites a huge number of users and developers who are ready to provide help and support in solving problems. You can seek advice on forums, read blogs or use other resources.
- The OS offers a wide range of features and functions and is compatible with a variety of hardware and software.
- The largest number of tutorials have been written for this operating system. And it is because of this that we can recommend Ubuntu for self-management of the server.
Installing Ubuntu on a virtual server
To install Ubuntu, you need to choose a suitable platform from the following options:
- amd64 (Intel/AMD 64-бит);
- arm64 (64-бит ARM);
- ppc64el (POWER8 и POWER9);
- s390x (IBM Z и LinuxONE).
The following specifications are recommended for comfortable operation (not including additional workload):
- processor: at least 1 GHz;
- RAM: at least 1 GB;
- disk space: at least 2.5 GB.
Installing Ubuntu Linux Server: instructions
You must boot the virtual machine or physical server (PC) using an ISO image (or a DVD containing an ISO image). The initial boot phase will prompt you to choose between installing the distribution and running the RAM testing software. It is recommended to select the "Try or install Ubuntu Server" option. The installation wizard will start.
If you have access to the Internet, it will automatically check for updates. If updates are available, you will be notified.
Select English in the keyboard layout settings. When selecting the installation type, check "Ubuntu Server". If you need to keep your vps as simple as possible and reduce the possibility of attacks, select "Ubuntu Server (minimized)". Missing components can be installed manually as required.
When configuring network settings, it is better to specify a static IP address instead of using DHCP to obtain one. After saving the configured IP addressing settings, click the "Finish" button. If you use a proxy, don't forget to specify its address.
The next step is to partition the disk. It is recommended to use all available disk space. Confirm your intention to change the disk partitioning.
Specify the username, password, and name of the vps server. If you need to install OpenSSH or additional packages, you can do so now, or you can skip this step.
The installation wizard will automatically download and install all security updates and then prompt you to reboot your system. Now you can safely say that the installation of Ubuntu Server was successful.
On EuroHoster VPS there is no need to perform all of the above operations. It is enough to select the VM Template with the desired Ubuntu version and the system will be installed.
Setting up an Ubuntu vps server from scratch
To update the available packages in the repositories, run the remote command:
sudo apt update. The "prefix" sudo should be used when authorizing under users, not root.
To install the available updates, use the command:
sudo apt upgrade.
To get a list of available time zones, enter the following command:
sudo timedatectl list-timezones. To set the time zone, type:
sudo timedatectl set-timezone Europe/Sofia.
To specify the FQDN (fully qualified domain name) of a host, run the command:
sudo hostnamectl set-hostname ubuntu.domain.com.
That's all the basic vps server settings that are recommended after installing Ubuntu Server.
To upgrade all installed packages in Ubuntu, the
sudo apt upgrade command will help. The upgrade takes place without removing other packages from the system.
Install a firewall and create a user
Linux system security includes a properly configured firewall. The Ubuntu distribution includes a configuration tool known as UFW (Uncomplicated Firewall). Make sure you are logged in with sudo user access or under the root account. If you do not have a sudo user, you can create one by running the following commands:
usermod -aG sudo username
su - username
UFW is usually installed by default in Ubuntu. If not - install it using the APT package manager with the command
sudo apt install ufw.
You can enable the firewall like this:
sudo ufw enable.
And to disable it, type:
sudo ufw disable.
SSH (Secure Shell) is a unique network protocol that provides secure control of the operating system and performs the function of tunneling a TCP connection. The operation of SSH is based on cooperation between two components: the SSH server and the SSH client.
The SSH server checks connections on port 22 by default and requires authentication on both sides. Several options are available for connection verification: password-based and key-based.
To check the status of the SSH server, run the command
sudo systemctl status ssh. To enable the SSH server at system boot, run
sudo systemctl enable ssh, and
sudo systemctl start ssh to start the service. Conversely, to stop
sudo systemctl stop ssh, and to deactivate
sudo systemctl disable ssh.
Ubuntu by default already has a base of necessary software. But every user has different preferences and needs.
For example, you can install Firefox, Google Chrome, Brave browsers. As a music player you can choose Rhythmbox, Sayonara, Audacity and Picard. Spotify, Nuvola will be useful for listening to streaming music. Alternative video players: VLC, MPV.
You may need an image editor: GIMP, Inkscape or drawing applications - Krita, Pinta. Cloud storage gives you additional freedom: Dropbox, pCloud.
Are you a photographer or videographer? There are many convenient applications at your disposal: DigiKam, Darktable, Kdenlive, Shotcut and others. There are image and video converters: Xnconvert, Handbrake; snapshot and screen recording applications: Shutter, Kazam
Do you also find it hard to imagine your computer without a text editor? LibreOffice, WPS Office are at your service. Among the download tools you can choose Youtube-dl, uGet. And if you are a programmer, Ubuntu has a default text editor Gedit and analogs: Atom, VS Code.
Want to communicate? Messaging applications: Skype, Rambox, a number of others.
And this list is inconclusive.
Ubuntu is a great choice for those who want a reliable, secure and easy-to-use operating system. It offers freedom of choice and a powerful terminal for advanced users. The huge Ubuntu community is always ready to provide support and help in any situation. No wonder Ubuntu deservedly occupies one of the most prestigious places among Linux distributions for beginners.